Epidemiology

Although osteoporosis patients have an increased mortality rate due to the complications of fracture, most patients die with the disease rather than of it.

Hip fractures can lead to decreased mobility and an additional risk of numerous complications (such as deep venous thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism, pneumonia). The 6-month mortality rate following hip fracture is approximately 13.5%, and a substantial proportion (almost 13%) of people who have suffered a hip fracture need total assistance to mobilize after a hip fracture.

Vertebral fractures, while having a smaller impact on mortality, can lead to severe chronic pain of neurogenic origin, which can be hard to control, as well as deformity. Though rare, multiple vertebral fractures can lead to such severe hunch back (kyphosis) that the resulting pressure on internal organs can impair one's ability to breathe.

Apart from risk of death and other complications, osteoporotic fractures are associated with a reduced health-related quality of life.

It is estimated that 1 in 3 women and 1 in 12 men over the age of 50 worldwide have osteoporosis. It is responsible for millions of fractures annually, mostly involving the lumbar vertebrae, hip, and wrist. Fragility fractures of ribs are also common in men.

Hip fractures

Hip fractures are responsible for the most serious consequences of osteoporosis. In the United States, more than 250,000 hip fractures annually are attributible to osteoporosis. It is estimated that a 50-year-old white woman has a 17.5% lifetime risk of fracture of the proximal femur. The incidence of hip fractures increases each decade from the sixth through the ninth for both women and men for all populations. The highest incidence is found among those men and women ages 80 or older.

Vertebral fractures

Between 35-50% of all women over 50 had at least one vertebral fracture. In the United States, 700,000 vertebral fractures occur annually, but only about a third are recognized. In a series of 9704 of women aged 68.8 on average studied for 15 years, 324 had already suffered a vertebral fracture at entry into the study; 18.2% developed a vertebral fracture, but that risk rose to 41.4% in women who had a previous vertebral fracture.

Wrist

In the United States, 250,000 wrist fractures annually are attributable to Osteoporosis. Wrist fractures are the third most common type of osteoporotic fractures. The lifetime risk of sustaining a Colles' fracture is about 16% for white women. By the time women reach age 70, about 20% have had at least one wrist fracture.

Rib Fractures

Fragility fractures of the ribs are common in men as young as age thirty-five on. These are often overlooked as signs of osteoporosis as these men are often physically active and suffer the fracture in the course of physical activity. An example would be as a result of falling while water skiing or jet skiing. However, a quick test of the individual's testosterone level following the diagnosis of the fracture will readily reveal whether that individual might be at risk.

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